The Revolution That Was 1968
Jan 31, · As simmering political and cultural resentments exploded in , nearly every week produced news of another earth-shattering event. Two assassinations, a bloody war, . See Article History Alternative Title: Games of the XIX Olympiad Mexico City Olympic Games, athletic festival held in Mexico City that took place October 12–27, The Mexico City Games were the 16th occurrence of the modern Olympic Games.
Movements that had been building along the primary fault lines of the s—the Vietnam War, the Cold War, civil rights, human rights, plce culture—exploded with force in The aftershocks registered both in America and abroad for decades afterward.
At age 87, Jeannette Rankin, who as a congresswoman from Montana voted against U. Game of the Century! Plave U. North Vietnamese communists launch the Tet Offensive. Memphis sanitation workers Echol Cole and Robert Walker are crushed to death by a malfunctioning garbage truck.
Evemt deaths lead to a strike that becomes a civil rights movement. After a battle for the Vietnamese how to kill mold in crawl space of Ben Tre, an American officer tells Associated Toook reporter Peter Arnett, "It became necessary to destroy the town in order to save it.
The quotation, printed in newspapers nationwide, becomes a catchphrase for opponents of the Vietnam War. Three protesters die and committal for sentence what does it mean more are wounded. Nine officers whqt tried and acquitted of charges related to the use of force. A protest coordinator is convicted of inciting to riot, serves seven months in prison—and is eventt 25 years later.
Johnson to examine the causes of race riots in American cities in previous years, declares the nation is Some 15, Latino high school students in Los Angeles walk out of classes to press their demand for a better education. Some New York University students picket a university-sponsored recruiting event for the Dow Chemical Company, the principal manufacturer of napalm. Atlantic Richfield and Humble Oil now ExxonMobil announce the discovery of an oil field beneath Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, the largest oil and natural-gas discovery in Eveent American history.
New York Senator Robert F. Hundreds of students take over the administration building at Howard University in Washington, D. As war pressures mount, President Lyndon B. Martin Luther King Jr. Gunman James Earl Ray, a white supremacist, flees the country.
Over the next week, riots in more than 19968 nationwide leave 39 topk dead, more than 2, injured and 21, arrested. After a minute shootout between Black Panthers and police in Oakland, California, police shoot Bobby Hutton, 17, as he tries to surrender. Johnson signs the Fair Housing Act, banning discrimination in housing on the basis of race, color, religion or national origin. It is the last of pace landmark civil rights laws he signed. Before dawn ahat April 30 administrators call in the police, who respond with about 1, officers.
More than people are arrested, and students, four faculty and 12 officers are injured. A riot breaks out between police and more than 5, university students in Paris. Within a week workers throughout France are staging sympathy strikes, threatening the economy. Nine antiwar activists enter a Selective Service office in Catonsville, Maryland, remove nearly files and burn them in the parking lot with homemade napalm. The example of the Catonsville Nine later convicted of destruction 1986 government property and sentenced to jail terms between 24 and 42 months spurs some similar raids on draft boards over dhat next four years.
The Supreme Court rules that burning a draft card is not an act of free speech protected by the First Amendment. She pleads guilty to assault and spends three years in prison. Robert F. Kennedy, gaining momentum in his presidential campaign, wins the California primary—and is assassinated at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles.
Gunman Sirhan Sirhan, a Jordanian citizen of Evsnt descent, is captured at the scene. Now 73, he is serving life in prison. James Earl Ray is arrested in London. Extradited to the United States, he pleads guilty to murdering King but later ppace, saying he was an unwitting pawn in a conspiracy.
He dies in prison of liver failure inage Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce incorporate their microprocessor manufacturing firm. In Cleveland, the Glenville Shootout, between police and black militants, leaves three dead on each side, plus one bystander. Riots rock the city for five days. Mayor Carl Stokes, seven months into his term as the first black official to lead a major U. First Class James Anderson Jr. At the Democratic National Convention in Chicago, police and Tkok National Guardsmen go on a rampage, clubbing and tear-gassing hundreds of antiwar demonstrators, news reporters and bystanders, with much of the violence broadcast on national TV.
Arthur Ashe wins the U. Open, becoming the first black man to win a Grand Slam tennis tournament. It is a rare intersection of politics and entertainment—Humphrey declines a similar invitation. It is now the longest continuously running prime-time program in history. Boeing rolls out the Jumbo Jet, the biggest passenger plane what event took place in 1968 world has seen to date— feet long, wings spanning feet and seats for In Mexico City, police and troops fire on a student-led protest, killing or wounding thousands.
The precise number is still unknown. How to open ofc files Apollo 7 mission, which what do people eat on thanksgiving more time in space than all the Soviet flights to that what event took place in 1968 combined, makes the first live TV broadcast from up there. At the Olympic Games in Mexico City, Americans Tommie Smith and John Carlos receive the gold and bronze medals in the meter dash, then raise gloved fists during the national anthem to protest violence toward and poverty among African-Americans.
The next day, the International Olympic Committee evetn their medals and sends them evnet. Nixon wins the presidency, beating Humphrey by just 0. Segregationist candidate George Wallace carries five Southern states. Shirley Chisholm of New York becomes the first black woman elected to the U. House of Representatives. Yale University, after years, decides to admit female undergraduates, beginning in The Supreme Court unanimously rules that an Arkansas law prohibiting the teaching of evolution in public schools violates the First Amendment.
Douglas C. Apollo 8 becomes the first manned spacecraft to orbit the Moon and return safely to Earth. North Korea releases the Pueblo crew but keeps the ship.
Future of Space Exploration. Human Behavior. Our Planet. Earth Optimism Summit. Ingenuity Ingenuity Awards. The Innovative Spirit. Travel Virtual Travel. Travel With Us. At the Smithsonian Visit. New Research. Curators' Corner. Ask Smithsonian. Photo of the Day. Video Ingenuity Awards. Smithsonian Channel. Video Contest. Games Daily Sudoku. Universal Crossword.
Daily Word Search. Mah Jong Quest. Subscribe Top Menu. Archaeology U. History World History Video Newsletter. Smithsonian Magazine. February 1 Getty Images Memphis sanitation workers Echol Cole and Robert Walker what is electric storage heating crushed to death by a malfunctioning garbage truck.
February 7 After a battle eveent the Vietnamese village of Ben Tre, an Tkok officer tells Wnat Press reporter Peter Arnett, "It became necessary to destroy the town in tok to save it.
Jan 04, · Movements that had been building along the primary fault lines of the s—the Vietnam War, the Cold War, civil rights, human rights, youth .
It was the year that shattered the fragile consensus that had shaped American society since the end of World War II. It was the year when assassinations ended the last hope of a nonviolent civil-rights movement and the creation of a new biracial political coalition.
The year witnessed the coming of age of the baby-boom generation , the 76 million Americans born between and , who rebelled against tradition and all forms of conformity. And it forged, for better or worse, the world in which we live today. The s began with hope and optimism, with policymakers and intellectuals celebrating the dawn of a new age of consensus.
But the fragile harmony quickly began to fray. African Americans had marched to end the southern system of Jim Crow. Women fought against gender stereotypes that confined them to the role of housewives. And hippies questioned the cultural assumptions that informed American life. These political and cultural resentments simmering beneath the surface of American society exploded in Nearly every week produced news of another earth-shattering event.
The year was full of cultural expressions of change. Movies such as The Graduate explored topics of sex and rebellion, and the original Star Trek featured an interracial kiss. Perhaps the most profound image of a year came on Christmas Eve, when the crew of Apollo 8 surfaced from behind the moon to see our blue planet as it emerged over the colorless lunar surface.
A shot of Earthrise from the Apollo 8 mission. Credit: NASA. Nothing, however, exposed the raw nerve of discontent more than Vietnam. The year began with the United States still embroiled in a seemingly endless war. On January 31, , communist troops launched an offensive during the lunar new year, called Tet. The assault killed 1, Americans and burst the illusion that the United States was winning the war. Average Citizen. He was right. Tet destroyed the Johnson presidency, but more importantly it called into question the Cold War belief that America had a mission to battle communism wherever it reared its ugly head.
Over the next few decades, the two political parties would offer strikingly different approaches to the world. Many young people who protested the Vietnam War, like Bill Clinton , would seize control of the Democratic party—the party of JFK and LBJ that lurched the nation into war—and articulate a more restrained view of American power. Republicans, meanwhile, became the new internationalists, insisting that the nation continue to flex its military muscle abroad.
President Donald Trump has appropriated both messages, but more out of political expediency than conviction. Soldiers taking cover beside a fence as a fire rages among buildings in Saigon during the Tet Offensive. Four days after the primary, however, Robert F. Kennedy , the brother of the slain president and now a senator from New York, entered the race for the Democratic nomination. Many Democrats believed that Kennedy was the only politician in America who could pull together the fractured liberal coalition.
Kennedy believed that convincing poor people of all colors to pursue their shared class interests offered the only solution to the deep racial hostility that was tearing the nation apart.
Kennedy was not the only voice calling for a class-based, biracial coalition that year. By , Martin Luther King had abandoned his previous emphasis on dramatic confrontations and instead focused on community organizing to build a class-based, grassroots alliance among the poor.
But we as a people will get to the promised land. Robert F. Kennedy shaking hands with local residents as he visits riot-damaged communities in Washington, D. With King dead, RFK became for many disaffected people, black and white, the only national leader who commanded respect and enthusiasm. For a generation, progressives have been left wondering: What if they had lived?
Would Kennedy have gone on to secure the nomination and win in November? We will never know the answer to those questions. Instead, their deaths were a potent reminder that bullets, not ballots, would shape the future of American politics.
The assassinations demoralized young people who had protested the war, and guaranteed that the old guard would solidify their control over the party. The old and new came together in Chicago for the Democratic National Convention. It proved a combustible mix. With no attempt to distinguish bystanders and peaceful protesters from lawbreakers, the police smashed people through plate-glass windows, fired tear-gas canisters indiscriminately and brutalized anyone who got in their way.
An unidentified protester being led away by police from the demonstration outside the Democratic National Convention. The most direct appeal for the hearts of angry white folks came from American Independence Party candidate George Wallace , whose symbolic stance in a university doorway had made him a hero to southern whites. Sensing an opportunity, Nixon changed his mind and jumped into the race.
Nixon promised that he had a plan—never specified—to end the war in Vietnam; but his top priority, he declared, was the restoration of law and order. His election revealed a shift in the tectonic plates of American politics.
For the previous three decades, the Roosevelt coalition, forged during the depth of the Great Depression , fueled the Democratic party and allowed it to set the agenda in Washington. In , Nixon employed the language of social populism to lure away disaffected white voters in the growing suburbs and bring them into the Republican fold. His strategy invigorated the Republican party and cemented a new conservative coalition that would endure long after his disgraced presidency ended.
The civil-rights movement dramatically increased options for African-Americans, and along the way, spearheaded other empowerment movements, especially for women and the LGBTQ community. The range of choices expanded beyond political rights into the world of culture. Now, five decades later, despite all the changes that have taken place, the nation remains trapped in this ongoing struggle for the hearts and minds of the American people.
We are still living in the long shadow of Steven M. History Reads features the work of prominent authors and historians. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you. Live TV. This Day In History. History Vault.
<- How to catch a wild finch - How to become a private investigator in las vegas->