Apr 20, · Like many other illnesses, several factors can contribute to ADHD, such as: Genes Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, or drug use during pregnancy Exposure to environmental toxins during pregnancy Exposure to environmental toxins, such as high levels of lead, at a young age Low birth weight Brain. Researchers at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and across the country are studying the causes of ADHD. Current research suggests ADHD may be caused by interactions between genes and environmental or non-genetic factors.
Some people with ADHD only have problems with one of the behaviors, while others have both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity.
Most children have the combined type of ADHD. It is normal to what causes hyperactivity in adhd some inattention, unfocused motor activity, and impulsivity, but for people with ADHD, these behaviors:. Diagnosis of ADHD requires a comprehensive evaluation by a licensed clinician, such as a pediatrician, psychologist, or psychiatrist with expertise in ADHD.
The doctor will also ensure that any ADHD symptoms are not due to another medical or psychiatric condition. Most children with ADHD receive a diagnosis during the elementary school years. For an adolescent or adult to receive a diagnosis of ADHD, the symptoms need to have been present before age ADHD symptoms can appear as early as between the ages of 3 and 6 and can continue through adolescence and adulthood.
Symptoms of ADHD can be mistaken for emotional or disciplinary problems or missed entirely in quiet, well-behaved children, leading to a delay in diagnosis. Adults with undiagnosed ADHD may have what causes hyperactivity in adhd history of poor academic performance, problems at work, or difficult or failed relationships.
ADHD symptoms can change over time as a person ages. In young children with ADHD, hyperactivity-impulsivity is the most predominant symptom. As a child reaches elementary school, the symptom of inattention may become more prominent and cause the child to struggle academically.
In adolescence, hyperactivity seems to lessen and may show more often as feelings of restlessness or fidgeting, but inattention and impulsivity may remain. Many adolescents with ADHD also struggle with relationships and antisocial behaviors.
Inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity tend to persist into adulthood. Researchers are not sure what causes ADHD. Like many other illnesses, several factors can contribute to ADHD, such as:. Other conditions, such as learning disabilities, anxiety disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and substance abuse, are common in people with ADHD. While there is no cure for ADHD, currently available treatments can help reduce symptoms and improve functioning.
Treatments include medication, psychotherapy, education or training, or a combination of treatments. For many people, ADHD medications reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity and improve their ability to focus, work, and learn.
Medication also may improve physical coordination. Sometimes several different medications or dosages must be tried before finding the right one that works for a particular person. Anyone taking medications must be monitored closely and carefully by their prescribing doctor. Under medical supervision, stimulant medications are considered safe. However, there are risks and side effects, especially when misused or taken in excess of the prescribed dose. For example, stimulants can raise blood pressure and heart rate what causes hyperactivity in adhd increase anxiety.
Therefore, a person with other health problems, including high blood pressure, seizures, heart disease, glaucoma, liver or kidney disease, take that do what you like live an anxiety disorder should tell their doctor before taking a stimulant.
A few other ADHD medications are non-stimulants. These medications take longer to start working than stimulants, but can also improve focus, attention, and impulsivity in a person with ADHD. Doctors may prescribe a non-stimulant: when a person has bothersome side effects from stimulants; when a stimulant was not effective; or in combination with a stimulant to increase effectiveness.
Although not approved by the U. Antidepressants may help all of the symptoms of ADHD and can be prescribed if a patient has bothersome side effects from stimulants. Antidepressants can be helpful in combination with stimulants if a patient also has another condition, such as an anxiety disorder, depression, or another mood disorder.
Doctors and patients can work together to find the best medication, dose, or medication combination. Learn the basics about stimulants and other mental health medications on the NIMH Mental Health Medications webpage and check the FDA website for the latest information on warnings, patient medication guides, or newly approved medications.
Several specific psychosocial interventions have been shown to help patients and their families manage symptoms and improve everyday functioning. In addition, children and adults with ADHD need guidance and understanding from their parents, families, and teachers to reach their full potential and to succeed.
For school-age children, frustration, blame, and anger may have built up within a family before a child is diagnosed. Parents and children may need specialized help to overcome negative feelings. Mental health professionals can educate parents about ADHD and how it affects a family.
They also will help the child and his or her parents develop new skills, attitudes, and ways of relating to each other. Behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy that aims to help a person change his or her behavior. It might involve practical assistance, such as help organizing tasks or completing schoolwork, or working through emotionally difficult events. Behavioral therapy also teaches a person how to:. Parents, teachers, and family members also can give positive or negative feedback for certain behaviors and help establish clear rules, chore lists, and other structured routines to help a person control his or her behavior.
Therapists may also teach children social skills, such as how to wait their turn, share toys, ask for help, or respond to teasing. Learning how to format rows in excel read facial expressions and the tone of voice in others, and how to respond appropriately can also be part of social skills training.
Cognitive behavioral therapy can also teach a person mindfulness techniques, or meditation. The therapist also what causes hyperactivity in adhd the person with ADHD to adjust to the life changes that come with treatment, such as thinking before acting, or resisting the urge to take unnecessary risks.
Family and marital therapy can help family members and spouses find better ways to handle disruptive behaviors, to encourage behavior changes, what causes hyperactivity in adhd improve interactions with the patient.
Parenting skills training behavioral parent management training teaches parents the skills they need to encourage and reward positive behaviors in their children. Parents are taught to give immediate and positive feedback for behaviors they want to encourage and ignore or redirect behaviors that they want to discourage. They may also learn to structure situations in ways that support desired behavior. These research-informed strategies typically include teacher-implemented reward programs that often utilize point systems and communication with parents via Daily Report Cards.
Many schools offer special education services to children with ADHD who qualify. Educational specialists help the child, parents, and teachers make changes to classroom and homework assignments to help the child succeed. Public schools are required what is included in rent for a house offer these services for qualified children, which may be free for families living within the school district.
What causes hyperactivity in adhd groups can help parents and families connect with others who have similar problems and concerns. Groups often meet regularly to share frustrations and successes, to exchange information about recommended specialists and strategies, and to talk with experts.
You can reach this center online or by phone at Parents and teachers can help kids with ADHD stay organized and follow directions with tools such as:. A professional counselor or therapist can help an adult with ADHD learn how to organize his or her life with tools such as:.
Clinical trials are research studies that look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat diseases and conditions. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Although individuals may benefit from being part of a clinical trial, participants should be aware that the primary purpose of a clinical trial is to gain new scientific knowledge so that others may be better helped in the future.
Researchers at NIMH and around the country conduct many studies with patients and healthy volunteers. We have new and better treatment options today because of what clinical trials uncovered years ago. Talk to your health care provider about clinical trials, their benefits and risks, and whether one is right for you. Last Revised: September Unless otherwise specified, NIMH information and publications are in the public domain and available for use free of charge.
Citation of the NIMH is appreciated. Hours: a. Eastern time, M-F. Live Online Chat: Talk to a representative Email: nimhinfo nih. Skip to content. Mental Health Information. Get Involved. Inattention means a person wanders off task, lacks persistence, has difficulty sustaining focus, and is disorganized; and these problems are not due to defiance or lack of comprehension. Hyperactivity means what causes hyperactivity in adhd person seems to move about constantly, including in situations in which it is not appropriate; or excessively fidgets, taps, or talks.
In adults, it may be extreme restlessness or wearing others out with constant activity. Impulsivity means a person makes hasty actions that occur in the moment without first thinking about them and that may have a high potential for harm, or a desire for immediate rewards or inability to delay gratification. An impulsive person may be socially intrusive and excessively interrupt others or make important decisions without considering the long-term consequences.
In preschool, the most common ADHD symptom is hyperactivity. Like many other illnesses, several factors can contribute to ADHD, such as: Genes Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, or drug use during pregnancy Exposure to environmental toxins during pregnancy Exposure to environmental toxins, such as high levels of lead, at a young age Low birth weight Brain injuries How to make a speakers louder is more common in males than females, and females with ADHD are more likely to have problems primarily with inattention.
Medication For many people, ADHD medications reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity and improve their ability to focus, work, and learn. Talk with a doctor if you see any of these or other side effects while taking stimulants: decreased appetite sleep problems tics sudden, repetitive movements or sounds personality changes increased anxiety and irritability stomachaches headaches Non-stimulants. Psychotherapy and Psychosocial Interventions Several specific psychosocial interventions have been shown to help patients and their families how to make a strangers mask symptoms and improve everyday functioning.
Behavioral therapy also teaches a person how to: monitor his or her own behavior give oneself praise or rewards for acting in a desired way, such as controlling anger or thinking before acting Parents, teachers, and family members also can give positive or negative feedback for certain behaviors and help establish clear rules, chore lists, and other structured routines to help a person control his or her behavior.
Keep the same routine every day, from wake-up time to bedtime. Include times for homework, outdoor play, and indoor activities. Keep the schedule on the refrigerator or a bulletin board in the kitchen.
Write changes on the schedule as far in advance as possible. Organizing everyday items. Have a place for everything, such as clothing, backpacks, and toysand keep everything in its place. Using homework and notebook organizers. Use organizers for school material and supplies. Stress to your child the importance of writing down assignments and bringing home the necessary books.
Being clear and consistent.
Browse by Topic
There may be a link between ADHD and a mother smoking while pregnant. However, women who suffer from ADHD themselves are more likely to smoke, so a genetic explanation cannot be ruled out. Sep 18, · A brain injury or a brain disorder. Damage to the front of the brain, called the frontal lobe, can cause problems controlling impulses and emotions. Sugar . There are some physical health problems that cause hyperactivity. An overactive thyroid, for example, can cause a wide range of symptoms, including anxiety and hyperactivity. 3 ? There are also other genetic issues that may lead to increased activity. Talk to your pediatrician about your child’s symptoms.
ADHD is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. It is usually first diagnosed in childhood and often lasts into adulthood. Children with ADHD may have trouble paying attention, controlling impulsive behaviors may act without thinking about what the result will be , or be overly active.
It is normal for children to have trouble focusing and behaving at one time or another. However, children with ADHD do not just grow out of these behaviors. The symptoms continue, can be severe, and can cause difficulty at school, at home, or with friends.
Learn more about signs and symptoms. There are three different types of ADHD, depending on which types of symptoms are strongest in the individual:. Scientists are studying cause s and risk factors in an effort to find better ways to manage and reduce the chances of a person having ADHD. The cause s and risk factors for ADHD are unknown, but current research shows that genetics plays an important role. Recent studies of twins link genes with ADHD.
In addition to genetics, scientists are studying other possible causes and risk factors including:. Research does not support the popularly held views that ADHD is caused by eating too much sugar, watching too much television, parenting, or social and environmental factors such as poverty or family chaos.
Of course, many things, including these, might make symptoms worse, especially in certain people. But the evidence is not strong enough to conclude that they are the main causes of ADHD. Deciding if a child has ADHD is a process with several steps. There is no single test to diagnose ADHD, and many other problems, like anxiety, depression, sleep problems, and certain types of learning disabilities, can have similar symptoms.
One step of the process involves having a medical exam, including hearing and vision tests, to rule out other problems with symptoms like ADHD. Diagnosing ADHD usually includes a checklist for rating ADHD symptoms and taking a history of the child from parents, teachers, and sometimes, the child.
Learn more about the criteria for diagnosing ADHD. In most cases, ADHD is best treated with a combination of behavior therapy and medication. For preschool-aged children years of age with ADHD, behavior therapy, particularly training for parents, is recommended as the first line of treatment before medication is tried.
What works best can depend on the child and family. Good treatment plans will include close monitoring, follow-ups, and making changes, if needed, along the way. Learn more about treatments. Being healthy is important for all children and can be especially important for children with ADHD. In addition to behavioral therapy and medication, having a healthy lifestyle can make it easier for your child to deal with ADHD symptoms.
Here are some healthy behaviors that may help:. If you or your doctor has concerns about ADHD, you can take your child to a specialist such as a child psychologist, child psychiatrist, or developmental pediatrician, or you can contact your local early intervention agency for children under 3 or public school for children 3 and older. Their website has links to information for people with ADHD and their families.
For more information on services for children with special needs, visit the Center for Parent Information and Resources. ADHD can last into adulthood. Some adults have ADHD but have never been diagnosed. The symptoms can cause difficulty at work, at home, or with relationships. Symptoms may look different at older ages, for example, hyperactivity may appear as extreme restlessness.
Symptoms can become more severe when the demands of adulthood increase. For more information about diagnosis and treatment throughout the lifespan, please visit the websites of the National Resource Center on ADHD external icon and the National Institutes of Mental Health external icon. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link.
Section Navigation. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. What is ADHD? Minus Related Pages. On this Page. Need help? Get Email Updates. To receive email updates about this topic, enter your email address: Email Address. What's this? Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
<- How to treat dogs with dry itchy skin - How to view pc through tv->