Parentheses: How to Use ( ) Correctly
Parentheses are always used in pairs (). The most basic rule for parentheses is that they can be used to offset a group of non-essential words that contribute additional details or other information that will be helpful to readers. They are also sometimes used in conjunction with numerals, acronyms or academic citations. Jun 30, · Like some other punctuation marks, parentheses are used in prose to set apart some text in a sentence, such as an explanation, observation, aside, or digression. Text set off by parentheses is not necessarily grammatically connected to the rest of the sentence. Nabokov is the author of novels (the best known are Lolita and Pale Fire), short stories, drama, poetry, Estimated Reading Time: 7 mins.
Parentheses are an important type of punctuation mark. Every writer needs to know the basic guidelines for using parentheses. Discover when to use parentheses and review examples that illustrate proper usage so you can learn how to parentbeses parentheses correctly.
Parentheses are always used in pairs. The most basic rule for parentheses is that they can be used to offset a group of non-essential padentheses that contribute go details or other information that will be helpful to readers. They are also sometimes used in conjunction with numerals, acronyms or academic citations. Parentheses marks can be used when a sentence includes a parenthetical expression, which is a non-essential group of words added to it for clarity or emphasis. You could choose to punctuate a parenthetical phrase within a sentence with commas or em dashes rather than parentheses.
In some cases, an entire sentence might gow added to a paragraph uxe parentheses. Sentences presented like this can function like a parenthetical phrase, except they are standalone sentences.
They are also used in fiction to let readers know what a character is thinking. When a complete sentence is included within parentheses, all of that sentence's punctuation should be inside the parentheses.
Hoow includes the period at the end of the sentence. You may sometimes find yourself needing to include a few words or a number inside parentheses how to become an environmental health inspector at the end of a sentence.
This is commonly done to clarify a general term that relates to an amount of money or to set a certain tone in dialogue. A particularly tricky situation arises when you have a parenthetical phrase within a sentence that requires its own punctuation separate from the end of the sentence. This often occurs when a writer parentueses trying to convey sarcasm or humor in the text. If a parenthetical phrase is intended parentehses come across as a question, then a question mark should be placed inside the parentheses.
However, this does not serve as an ending to the actual sentence, even if the parentheses mark how to use parentheses in writing the last character. There still needs to be a period at the end — outside of the parentheses — to bring the sentence to a hse. Under most circumstances, you would never use a period inside parentheses, unless the text within them is a complete sentence.
However, English grammar is filled with exceptions. Abbreviations are the exception to this rule. Any time a parenthetical expression includes an abbreviation that requires one or more periods, then there will have to be periods within parentheses marks.
Of course, in cases where the abbreviation is a shortened version of a word, you could simply choose to spell out the wrriting how to use parentheses in writing its entirety. When including the equivalent of a numbered list within a sentence, you are creating what is referred to as a horizontal across list.
With this type of numbered list, you should put parentheses around each numeral. The example above does not use an Oxford comma. If you are writnig for a company that prefers that usage, then you would insert a comma after all of the listed cities except the last one. There is no need to use parentheses with a vertical up and down list.
If you are listing more than four items, a vertical list would be easier for your readers to follow. This is done by spelling out all of the words immediately before the acronym, which needs to be in parentheses. Once you have written the full how to use parentheses in writing and specified the acronym one time in a document, further instances of the acronym in the same document do not require parentheses.
If you are doing academic writingyou will likely need to use parentheses for in-text citations. This should be done in a manner consistent with the particular style guide required by your instructor or the scholarly journal or conference to which you plan to submit your work. There are very particular requirements for different types of citations and bibliography formats specific to each style.
Now that you have explored parentheses examples and know when and how to use parentheses correctly, you can start incorporating them into your writing as appropriate. Wrkting With Parenthetical Expressions Parentheses marks can be used when a sentence includes a parenthetical expression, which is a non-essential group of words added to it for clarity or emphasis.
I am making dinner pot roast with potatoes and carrots in the slow cooker. She always writjng her dog that yappy little mutt when she comes to visit. Parentheses With Complete Sentences In some cases, an entire sentence might be added to a paragraph hpw parentheses. Sure, I can meet you on Tuesday at 1 p. How to shoot video canon 5d mark iii at the End of a Sentence You may how to use parentheses in writing find yourself needing to include a few words or a number inside parentheses marks at the end of a sentence.
Extra Punctuation Needed ib Parentheses A particularly tricky situation arises when you have a parenthetical phrase within a yow that requires its own punctuation separate from the end of the sentence.
Abbreviations With Periods in Parentheses Under most circumstances, you would never use a period inside parentheses, unless the text within them is a what causes stomach pains and loud growling sentence.
Wrlting will get started very early a. Each team needs to be represented at the safety meeting not just your dept. Parentheses Pparentheses Numerals When including the equivalent of a numbered list within a sentence, you are creating what is referred parenthesds as a horizontal across list. This recipe requires three ingredients: 1 cucumbers, 2 vinegar and 3 salt. I will be visiting three different Alabama cities, in order from north to south: 1 Huntsville, 2 Birmingham and 2 Montgomery.
A FEMA representative will visit soon. Parentheses With Source Citations If you are doing academic writingyou will likely need to use parentheses for in-text citations.
Making the Most of Parentheses Now that you have explored parentheses examples and know when and how to writiny parentheses correctly, you can start incorporating them into your writing as appropriate.
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The punctuation mark sets off thoughts from a sentence
Parentheses Use parentheses around nonessential information or abrupt changes in thought. When the words in parentheses form a When the words in parentheses form a complete sentence, place a period inside the closing parenthesis. No personal phone No personal phone calls are allowed on . Sep 10, · Write for fifteen minutes on the following prompt. Use parenthetical statements to enhance your story, and be careful to punctuate them correctly. For extra practice, change your parenthetical statements into em dash asides when you’re Estimated Reading Time: 7 mins. The parentheses allow an external narrator to enter the story just for a moment – an all-seeing eye that tells us what Holly didn’t think – but that voice is cocooned safely within those round brackets, and is gone as soon as the reader’s eye passes over the closing symbol. King’s an experienced writer.
The parenthesis is a punctuation mark, which is written or typed as an upright curved line. Two parentheses, , are generally paired and used to mark off explanatory or qualifying remarks in writing. Parentheses indicate an interrupting phrase , a word group a statement, question , or exclamation that interrupts the flow of a sentence and can also be set off with commas or dashes.
The parenthesis is a type of bracket , which when paired with another bracket—[ ] — is used to interject text within other text. Parentheses are prevalent in mathematics, too, where they are used to set off arithmetic symbols as well as numbers, operations, and equations. The symbols themselves first showed up in the late 14th century, with scribes using virgulae convexae also called half moons for a variety of purposes.
By the end of the 16th century, the parenthesis from the Latin for "insert beside" had begun to assume its modern role, as Richard Mulcaster explained in "Elementarie," which was published in In her book "Quoting Speech in Early English," Colette Moore notes that parentheses, like other marks of punctuation, originally had both " elocutionary and grammatical " functions:.
Spanning more than years Moore's book was published in , both authors say essentially the same thing: Parentheses separate text that, while important in that it adds meaning, is less significant than the text that falls outside of these punctuation marks.
Parentheses allow for the insertion of some verbal unit that interrupts the normal syntactic flow of the sentence. These are called parenthetical elements, which may also be set off by dashes.
An example of parentheses in use would be:. The important information in this sentence is that the students are foul-mouthed. The aside adds texture to the sentence, but the statement would work fine and make sense without the parenthetical information. The Chicago Manual of Style Online explains that parentheses, which are stronger than commas or dashes, set off material from the surrounding text, adding that; "Like dashes but unlike commas, parentheses can set off text that has no grammatical relationship to the rest of the sentence.
The style manual also notes that you can use parentheses as delimiters for letters or numbers in a list or outline, as well as in academic uses including parenthetical references to a list of works cited. Parentheses as with other punctuation marks can be tricky to use until you understand a few simple rules:. In the first sentence, the statement, The new sedan is fast, does not end with a period.
Instead, you place the period after the parenthetical sentence as well as the final parenthesis , it goes from zero to 60 in just six seconds. You also start the parenthetical sentence with a lowercase letter i because it is still considered part of the overall sentence and not a separate statement.
In the second sentence, you might argue that the parenthetical information the fact that the boss saw an accident is key to understanding the sentence. In the third sentence, the parenthetical word district is an English translation of the French word arrondissement. Though the word district is parenthetical, it might be important in helping a non-French-speaking reader understand the sentence.
Delimiters for letters or numbers in a list: The Chicago Manual of Style says you should put parentheses around each number or letter in a list, as in these examples:. These are citations placed within the text in an academic paper, journal article, or book that points the reader to a more complete citation in the bibliography or references section. Examples, as noted by Purdue OWL , are:.
For these types of parenthetical citations, you generally include the year of the publication, the author s ' names, and, if needed, the page number s. Note also that in the previous sentence, you can use parentheses around a single letter, indicating that the word "number" may be singular referring to a single page number, or it may be plural, referring to two or more page numbers or that there may be only a single author or several authors.
Mathematical problems: In math , parentheses are used to group numbers or variables, or both. When you see a math problem containing parentheses, you need to use the order of operations to solve it. In this problem, you would calculate the operation within the parentheses first, even if it is an operation that would normally come after the other operations in the problem.
Neil Gaiman really likes parentheses. Gaimen may feel blessed when the author offers him a "personal" aside, but other writers say that parentheses may be a clue that the sentence is becoming contorted. So take the advice of "The Associated Press Stylebook.
Rewrite your sentence if you find you are including long asides or more than one set of parentheses. Use these punctuation marks only when you have a short, pithy, and interesting bit to convey to readers to heighten their interest—not confuse them. Share Flipboard Email. An Introduction to Punctuation. Introduction Terminal Punctuation. Periods Question Marks Exclamation Points. Punctuation Within Sentences. Spacing and Breaks.
Paragraph Breaks White Spaces and Spacing. Richard Nordquist. English and Rhetoric Professor. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. Cite this Article Format. Nordquist, Richard. How to Use Parentheses in Writing. What Is an Aside in Speech and Writing? Definition and Examples of Periods: Full Stop. Examples of Signal Phrases in Grammar and Composition.
Guidelines for Using Semicolons, Colons, and Dashes. Definition and Examples of Interrupting Phrases. Documentation in Reports and Research Papers.
Definition and Examples of Paragraph Breaks in Prose.
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