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Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a flowering plant, Linum usitatissimum, in the family facetimepc.co is cultivated as a food and fiber crop in regions of the world with temperate facetimepc.coes made from flax are known in Western countries as linen, and are traditionally used for bed sheets, underclothes, and table facetimepc.co oil is known as linseed oil. With sheets in every toilet paper roll, Scott is American's longest lasting roll of all Natural brands. Septic safe, sewer safe and suitable for RVs and boats, Scott toilet paper breaks up four times faster than the average bathroom tissue In , Scott began its journey toward going green.
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Jun 23, · STEAM for Kids: How to Make a Kaleidoscope Materials for Homemade Kaleidoscope. Empty toilet paper roll; Mylar sheets (thicker sheets, not rolls of thin paper) or mirrored sheets; Scissors and/or paper cutter (This is the paper cutter I keep at home. It’s come in super handy!). Sep 09, · Small seedling pots can be made by rolling doubled-up sheets of newspaper around a small jar, then gluing the bottom together with wheat paste, or by folding the paper into a . Lightly dust the top of the dough with flour. Cover with a second piece of parchment paper. Let stand at room temperature until malleable, about 5 minutes. Use a rolling pin to press and roll out the dough into a 1/4-inch- thick round between the sheets of parchment, flipping the dough occasionally.
Flax , also known as common flax or linseed, is a flowering plant , Linum usitatissimum , in the family Linaceae. It is cultivated as a food and fiber crop in regions of the world with temperate climate. Textiles made from flax are known in Western countries as linen , and are traditionally used for bed sheets, underclothes, and table linen. Its oil is known as linseed oil.
In addition to referring to the plant itself, the word "flax" may refer to the unspun fibers of the flax plant. The plant species is known only as a cultivated plant,  and appears to have been domesticated just once from the wild species Linum bienne , called pale flax. Several other species in the genus Linum are similar in appearance to L. Cultivated flax plants grow to 1. The leaves are glaucous green, slender lanceolate , 20—40 mm long, and 3 mm broad. The flowers are pure pale blue, 15—25 mm in diameter, with five petals.
The fruit is a round, dry capsule 5—9 mm in diameter, containing several glossy brown seeds shaped like an apple pip, 4—7 mm long. The earliest evidence of humans using wild flax as a textile comes from the present-day Republic of Georgia , where spun, dyed, and knotted wild flax fibers found in Dzudzuana Cave date to the Upper Paleolithic , 30 thousand years ago. Use of the crop steadily spread, reaching as far as Switzerland and Germany by 5, years ago.
Flax was cultivated extensively in ancient Egypt , where the temple walls had paintings of flowering flax, and mummies were embalmed using linen. But with laws designed to publicize the hygiene of linen textiles and the health of linseed oil, Charlemagne revived the crop in the eighth century CE. Since then, flax has lost its importance as a commercial crop , due to the easy availability of more durable fibres.
Flax is grown for its seeds, which can be ground into a meal or turned into linseed oil , a product used as a nutritional supplement and as an ingredient in many wood-finishing products. Flax is also grown as an ornamental plant in gardens. Moreover, flax fibers are used to make linen. The specific epithet , usitatissimum, means "most useful". Flax fibers taken from the stem of the plant are two to three times as strong as cotton fibers.
Additionally, flax fibers are naturally smooth and straight. Europe and North America both depended on flax for plant-based cloth until the 19th century, when cotton overtook flax as the most common plant for making rag-based paper.
Flax is grown on the Canadian prairies for linseed oil, which is used as a drying oil in paints and varnishes and in products such as linoleum and printing inks. Linseed meal, the by-product of producing linseed oil from flax seeds, is used as livestock fodder. Yellow flax seeds, called solin trade name " Linola " ,  have a similar oil profile to brown flax seeds and both are very high in omega-3s alpha-linolenic acid ALA , specifically. It is an edible oil obtained by expeller pressing and sometimes followed by solvent extraction.
Solvent-processed flaxseed oil has been used for many centuries as a drying oil in painting and varnishing. Although brown flaxseed varieties may be consumed as readily as the yellow ones, and have been for thousands of years, these varieties are more commonly used in paints, for fiber, and for cattle feed.
A gram portion of ground flaxseed supplies about 2, kilojoules kilocalories of food energy , 41 g of fat, 28 g of fiber, and 20 g of protein. Under conditions similar to those found in commercial bakeries, trained sensory panelists could not detect differences between bread made with freshly ground flaxseed and bread made with flaxseed that had been milled four months earlier and stored at room temperature.
Three phenolic glucosides — secoisolariciresinol diglucoside , p-coumaric acid glucoside, and ferulic acid glucoside — are present in commercial breads containing flaxseed.
After crushing the seeds to extract linseed oil, the resultant linseed meal is a protein -rich feed for ruminants , rabbits , and fish. Linola was developed in Australia and introduced in the s with less omega-3, specifically to serve as fodder. Linseed meal is added to cattle feed as a protein supplement. It can only be added at low percentages due to the high fat content, which is unhealthy for ruminants. It might also act as a substitute for tallow in increasing marbling.
It has been fed as supplement to water buffaloes in India, and provided a better diet than forage alone, but not as good as when substituted with soy meal. It is considered an inferior protein supplement for swine because of its fibre, the vitamin antagonist, the high omega-3 content and its low lysine content, and can only be used in small amounts in the feed.
Although it may increase the omega-3 content in eggs and meat, it is also an inferior and potentially toxic feed for poultry, although it can be used in small amounts. Its use in fish feeds is limited. Raw, immature linseeds contain an amount of cyanogenic compounds and can be dangerous for monogastric animals such as horses or rabbits. Boiling removes the danger. This is not an issue in meal cake due to the processing temperature during oil extraction. Flax straw left over from the harvesting of oilseed is not very nutritious; it is tough and indigestible, and is not recommended to use as ruminant fodder, although it may be used as bedding or baled as windbreaks.
Flax fiber is extracted from the bast beneath the surface of the stem of the flax plant. Flax fiber is soft, lustrous, and flexible; bundles of fiber have the appearance of blonde hair, hence the description "flaxen" hair.
It is stronger than cotton fiber, but less elastic. The use of flax fibers dates back tens of thousands of years; linen , a refined textile made from flax fibers, was worn widely by Sumerian priests more than 4, years ago. A Bronze Age factory dedicated to flax processing was discovered in Euonymeia , Greece. The best grades are used for fabrics such as damasks , lace , and sheeting.
Coarser grades are used for the manufacturing of twine and rope , and historically, for canvas and webbing equipment. Flax fiber is a raw material used in the high-quality paper industry for the use of printed banknotes , laboratory paper blotting and filter , rolling paper for cigarettes , and tea bags. Flax mills for spinning flaxen yarn were invented by John Kendrew and Thomas Porthouse of Darlington , England , in Flax contains hundreds of times more lignans than other plant foods.
One study of research published between and showed that consuming flaxseed or its derivatives may reduce total and LDL-cholesterol in the blood, with greater benefits in women and those with high cholesterol. A meta-analysis has shown that consumption of more than 30 g of flaxseed daily for more than 12 weeks reduced body weight, body mass index BMI , and waist circumference for persons with a BMI greater than Flaxseed and its oil have repeatedly been demonstrated to be nontoxic and are generally recognized as safe for human consumption.
The soils most suitable for flax, besides the alluvial kind, are deep loams containing a large proportion of organic matter. Heavy clays are unsuitable, as are soils of a gravelly or dry sandy nature. Farming flax requires few fertilizers or pesticides. Within eight weeks of sowing, the plant can reach 10—15 cm 3. In , world production of flax linseed was 3. Flax is harvested for fiber production after about days, or a month after the plants flower and two weeks after the seed capsules form.
The bases of the plants begin to turn yellow. If the plants are still green, the seed will not be useful, and the fiber will be underdeveloped. The fiber degrades once the plants turn brown. Flax grown for seed is allowed to mature until the seed capsules are yellow and just starting to split; it is then harvested in various ways.
A combine harvester may either cut only the heads of the plants, or the whole plant. These are then dried to extract the seed. The amount of weeds in the straw affects its marketability, and this, coupled with market prices, determines whether the farmer chooses to harvest the flax straw.
If the flax straw is not harvested, typically, it is burned, since the stalks are quite tough and decompose slowly i. Formed into windrows from the harvesting process, the straw often clogs up tillage and planting equipment. Flax straw that is not of sufficient quality for fiber uses can be baled to build shelters for farm animals, or sold as biofuel, or removed from the field in the spring.
Two ways are used to harvest flax fiber, one involving mechanized equipment combines , and a second method, more manual and targeting maximum fiber length. Flax for fiber production is usually harvested by a specialized flax harvester. Usually built on the same machine base as a combine, but instead of the cutting head it has a flax puller.
The flax plant turned over and is gripped by rubber belts roughly 20—25 cm " above ground, to avoid getting grasses and weeds in the flax. The rubber belts then pull the whole plant out of the ground with the roots so the whole length of the plant fiber can be used.
The plants then pass over the machine and is placed on the field crosswise to the harvesters direction of travel. The plants are left in the field for field retting.
The mature plant can also be cut with mowing equipment, similar to hay harvesting, and raked into windrows. When dried sufficiently, a combine then harvests the seeds similar to wheat or oat harvesting. The plant is pulled up with the roots not cut , so as to increase the fiber length. After this, the flax is allowed to dry, the seeds are removed, and it is then retted.
Dependent upon climatic conditions, characteristics of the sown flax and fields, the flax remains on the ground between two weeks and two months for retting. As a result of alternating rain and the sun, an enzymatic action degrades the pectins which bind fibers to the straw.
The farmers turn over the straw during retting to evenly rett the stalks. When the straw is retted and sufficiently dry, it is rolled up. It is then stored by farmers before extracting the fibers. Threshing is the process of removing the seeds from the rest of the plant.
Flax processing is divided into two parts: the first part is generally done by the farmer, to bring the flax fiber into a fit state for general or common purposes. This can be performed by three machines: one for threshing out the seed, one for breaking and separating the straw stem from the fiber, and one for further separating the broken straw and matter from the fiber.
The second part of the process brings the flax into a state for the very finest purposes, such as lace , cambric , damask , and very fine linen. This second part is performed by a refining machine. Before the flax fibers can be spun into linen, they must be separated from the rest of the stalk. The first step in this process is retting , which is the process of rotting away the inner stalk, leaving the outer parts intact.
At this point, straw, or coarse outer stem cortex and epidermis , is still remaining. To remove this, the flax is "broken", the straw is broken up into small, short bits, while the actual fiber is left unharmed.
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