How to learn English by yourself? Start with an easy and free online course! We have adopted an objective and efficient approach to learn how to speak a language easily and quickly: we suggest you to start by memorizing words, phrases and practical expressions that you can use in everyday life and that will be useful when traveling. Getting used to pronounce words out loud, numbers for. English is an Indo-European language and belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic languages. Old English originated from a Germanic tribal and linguistic continuum along the Frisian North Sea coast, whose languages gradually evolved into the Anglic languages in the British Isles, and into the Frisian languages and Low German/Low Saxon on the continent.
British vs American: the ultimate language battle. The same, but different. But how different after all? This is, of course, a joke or is it? After all, British English and American English are not entirely different languages. How did the same language develop in such a different way? Why do we spell some words differently? As you probably already know, the English language was first introduced to the Americas in the 16th and 17th centuries by the British colonists.
Over the next years, the English used in the region we now know as the United States welcomed some changes. However, these were not standardized until when Noah Webster published the first American dictionary. Allegedly, he changed the spelling of some words to make American English different how to see if ticketmaster tickets are real British English as a way of showing cultural independence.
Additionally, Americans also chose to use different formatting for dates how to get coconut oil out of hair fast numbers.
Although the accent represents the most noticeable difference between British and American English, there are also words that differ completely depending on whether you are in Europe or across the Atlantic ocean.
In the same fashion, what is known as football across the European continent, Americans call soccer. Always remember that, when it comes to spelling, American English uses a simplified version.
If you speak English as a second language and you are not sure which is the correct spelling for the type of English you use, install a spell checker and let it do the job for you.
Although spelling, accent and vocabulary differences are the most notorious distinctions, American English and British English are divergent in some grammar matters as well. In contrast, British English considers collective nouns either singular or plural, but more often plural as a way to emphasize the members of the group. Easily overlooked in speech, but much more obvious in writing, this subtle difference addresses verbs.
Many verbs that are irregular in the past tense in British English dreamt, burnt, learnthave been made regular in American English dreamed, burned, learned. While Brits tend to use the present perfect tense to describe something that has recently occurred, Americans usually go with the past simple tense. Generally, the British are more likely to use formal speech, while Americans will rather go with informal expressions.
The biggest difference between British English and American English is, undoubtedly, the what are the properties of gore tex. The reason why these two variations sound so different is known as rhotacism, the change of a particular consonant into a rhotic consonant.
Learn whichever you feel and like. Of course, if you intend to move to the United States, it is best to study and get used to the American accent. The most important thing you should remember is to be consistent. Avoid mixing them up. And work hard on your desired English pronunciation. Then again, the truth is how to learn english speaking easily in hindi these two English variants are very much alike.
It is what it is. If you want to learn some of its funniest slang, check out 87 Australian slang terms to help you speak like a true Aussie. Do you want to speak English like a true American? Or maybe you dream of acquiring the classy British accent?
With Mondly you can train for both. Start using Mondly for free on your computer or download the app and learn British English or American English fast anytime, anywhere.
British vs American: most common vocabulary differences
The best way to learn the flow of English and practice difficult sounds that don’t exist in your native language is to mimic native speakers. You can find a lot of free video lessons on YouTube and expose yourself to the American way of speaking English. Besides, you can subscribe to pronunciation podcasts and listen to them on the go. Read aloud. How to learn Italian by yourself? Start with an easy and free online course! We have adopted an objective and efficient approach to learn how to speak a language easily and quickly: we suggest you to start by memorizing words, phrases and practical expressions that you can use in everyday life and that will be useful when traveling. Getting used to pronounce words out loud, numbers for. Whether you wish to learn in a group or demand complete attention from the instructor, we have both the options to suit your learning needs. With our audio-visual online learning sessions, one can have a real-time interaction with the trainer, ask questions, get the doubts cleared, and practice the lessons taught.
English is a West Germanic language first spoken in early medieval England , which has become the leading language of international discourse in the 21st century. Both names derive from Anglia , a peninsula on the Baltic Sea. English is most closely related to Frisian and Low Saxon , while its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages , particularly Old Norse a North Germanic language , as well as Latin and French.
English has developed over the course of more than 1, years. Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England ; this was a period in which English was influenced by Old French , in particular through its Old Norman dialect.
Modern English has been spreading around the world since the 17th century by the worldwide influence of the British Empire and the United States. Through all types of printed and electronic media of these countries, English has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and professional contexts such as science , navigation and law.
English is the largest language by number of speakers ,  and the third most-spoken native language in the world, after Standard Chinese and Spanish. There are more people who have learned it as a second language than there are native speakers. As of [update] , it was estimated that there were over 2 billion speakers of English.
English speakers are called "Anglophones". Variability among the accents and dialects of English used in different countries and regions—in terms of phonetics and phonology , and sometimes also vocabulary , idioms , grammar , and spelling —does not typically prevent understanding by speakers of other dialects , although mutual unintelligibility can occur at extreme ends of the dialect continuum.
English is an Indo-European language and belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic languages. The Frisian languages, which together with the Anglic languages form the Anglo-Frisian languages , are the closest living relatives of English.
Like Icelandic and Faroese , the development of English in the British Isles isolated it from the continental Germanic languages and influences, and it has since diverged considerably.
English is not mutually intelligible with any continental Germanic language, differing in vocabulary , syntax , and phonology , although some of these, such as Dutch or Frisian, do show strong affinities with English, especially with its earlier stages. Unlike Icelandic and Faroese, which were isolated, the development of English was influenced by a long series of invasions of the British Isles by other peoples and languages, particularly Old Norse and Norman French.
These left a profound mark of their own on the language, so that English shows some similarities in vocabulary and grammar with many languages outside its linguistic clades —but it is not mutually intelligible with any of those languages either. Some scholars have argued that English can be considered a mixed language or a creole —a theory called the Middle English creole hypothesis. Although the great influence of these languages on the vocabulary and grammar of Modern English is widely acknowledged, most specialists in language contact do not consider English to be a true mixed language.
English is classified as a Germanic language because it shares innovations with other Germanic languages such as Dutch , German , and Swedish. Some shared features of Germanic languages include the division of verbs into strong and weak classes, the use of modal verbs , and the sound changes affecting Proto-Indo-European consonants, known as Grimm's and Verner's laws. Old English developed from a set of West Germanic dialects, often grouped as Anglo-Frisian or North Sea Germanic , and originally spoken along the coasts of Frisia , Lower Saxony and southern Jutland by Germanic peoples known to the historical record as the Angles , Saxons , and Jutes.
By the 7th century, the Germanic language of the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in Britain , replacing the languages of Roman Britain 43— : Common Brittonic , a Celtic language , and Latin , brought to Britain by the Roman occupation. A few short inscriptions from the early period of Old English were written using a runic script.
Old English is essentially a distinct language from Modern English and is virtually impossible for 21st-century unstudied English-speakers to understand. Its grammar was similar to that of modern German , and its closest relative is Old Frisian. Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs had many more inflectional endings and forms , and word order was much freer than in Modern English. Modern English has case forms in pronouns he , him , his and has a few verb inflections speak , speaks , speaking , spoke , spoken , but Old English had case endings in nouns as well, and verbs had more person and number endings.
The translation of Matthew from shows examples of case endings nominative plural, accusative plural, genitive singular and a verb ending present plural :.
John of Trevisa , ca. From the 8th to the 12th century, Old English gradually transformed through language contact into Middle English. Middle English is often arbitrarily defined as beginning with the conquest of England by William the Conqueror in , but it developed further in the period from to First, the waves of Norse colonisation of northern parts of the British Isles in the 8th and 9th centuries put Old English into intense contact with Old Norse , a North Germanic language. Norse influence was strongest in the north-eastern varieties of Old English spoken in the Danelaw area around York, which was the centre of Norse colonisation; today these features are still particularly present in Scots and Northern English.
However the centre of norsified English seems to have been in the Midlands around Lindsey , and after CE when Lindsey was reincorporated into the Anglo-Saxon polity, Norse features spread from there into English varieties that had not been in direct contact with Norse speakers. An element of Norse influence that persists in all English varieties today is the group of pronouns beginning with th- they, them, their which replaced the Anglo-Saxon pronouns with h- hie, him, hera.
With the Norman conquest of England in , the now norsified Old English language was subject to contact with Old French , in particular with the Old Norman dialect.
The Norman language in England eventually developed into Anglo-Norman. The distinction between nominative and accusative cases was lost except in personal pronouns, the instrumental case was dropped, and the use of the genitive case was limited to indicating possession.
The inflectional system regularised many irregular inflectional forms,  and gradually simplified the system of agreement, making word order less flexible. By the 12th century Middle English was fully developed, integrating both Norse and French features; it continued to be spoken until the transition to early Modern English around In the Middle English period, the use of regional dialects in writing proliferated, and dialect traits were even used for effect by authors such as Chaucer.
The next period in the history of English was Early Modern English — Early Modern English was characterised by the Great Vowel Shift — , inflectional simplification, and linguistic standardisation. It was a chain shift , meaning that each shift triggered a subsequent shift in the vowel system. Mid and open vowels were raised , and close vowels were broken into diphthongs.
For example, the word bite was originally pronounced as the word beet is today, and the second vowel in the word about was pronounced as the word boot is today. The Great Vowel Shift explains many irregularities in spelling since English retains many spellings from Middle English, and it also explains why English vowel letters have very different pronunciations from the same letters in other languages.
English began to rise in prestige, relative to Norman French, during the reign of Henry V. Around , the Court of Chancery in Westminster began using English in its official documents , and a new standard form of Middle English, known as Chancery Standard , developed from the dialects of London and the East Midlands.
In , William Caxton introduced the printing press to England and began publishing the first printed books in London, expanding the influence of this form of English. Many of the grammatical features that a modern reader of Shakespeare might find quaint or archaic represent the distinct characteristics of Early Modern English.
By the late 18th century, the British Empire had spread English through its colonies and geopolitical dominance. Commerce, science and technology, diplomacy, art, and formal education all contributed to English becoming the first truly global language. English also facilitated worldwide international communication.
English was adopted in parts of North America, parts of Africa, Australasia, and many other regions. When they obtained political independence, some of the newly independent nations that had multiple indigenous languages opted to continue using English as the official language to avoid the political and other difficulties inherent in promoting any one indigenous language above the others.
As Modern English developed, explicit norms for standard usage were published, and spread through official media such as public education and state-sponsored publications.
In Samuel Johnson published his A Dictionary of the English Language which introduced standard spellings of words and usage norms. In , Noah Webster published the American Dictionary of the English language to try to establish a norm for speaking and writing American English that was independent of the British standard.
Within Britain, non-standard or lower class dialect features were increasingly stigmatised, leading to the quick spread of the prestige varieties among the middle classes. In modern English, the loss of grammatical case is almost complete it is now only found in pronouns, such as he and him , she and her , who and whom , and SVO word order is mostly fixed. Earlier English did not use the word "do" as a general auxiliary as Modern English does; at first it was only used in question constructions, and even then was not obligatory.
The use of progressive forms in -ing , appears to be spreading to new constructions, and forms such as had been being built are becoming more common. Regularisation of irregular forms also slowly continues e. British English is also undergoing change under the influence of American English, fuelled by the strong presence of American English in the media and the prestige associated with the US as a world power.
As of [update] , million people spoke English as their first language , and 1. English is spoken by communities on every continent and on islands in all the major oceans. The countries where English is spoken can be grouped into different categories according to how English is used in each country. The "inner circle"  countries with many native speakers of English share an international standard of written English and jointly influence speech norms for English around the world.
English does not belong to just one country, and it does not belong solely to descendants of English settlers. English is an official language of countries populated by few descendants of native speakers of English. It has also become by far the most important language of international communication when people who share no native language meet anywhere in the world. The Indian linguist Braj Kachru distinguished countries where English is spoken with a three circles model. Kachru based his model on the history of how English spread in different countries, how users acquire English, and the range of uses English has in each country.
The three circles change membership over time. Countries with large communities of native speakers of English the inner circle include Britain, the United States, Australia, Canada, Ireland, and New Zealand, where the majority speaks English, and South Africa, where a significant minority speaks English. The countries with the most native English speakers are, in descending order, the United States at least million ,  the United Kingdom 60 million ,    Canada 19 million ,  Australia at least 17 million ,  South Africa 4.
Estimates of the numbers of second language and foreign-language English speakers vary greatly from million to more than 1 billion, depending on how proficiency is defined. Those countries have millions of native speakers of dialect continua ranging from an English-based creole to a more standard version of English.
They have many more speakers of English who acquire English as they grow up through day-to-day use and listening to broadcasting, especially if they attend schools where English is the medium of instruction.
Varieties of English learned by non-native speakers born to English-speaking parents may be influenced, especially in their grammar, by the other languages spoken by those learners. The standard English of the inner-circle countries is often taken as a norm for use of English in the outer-circle countries. In the three-circles model, countries such as Poland, China, Brazil, Germany, Japan, Indonesia, Egypt, and other countries where English is taught as a foreign language, make up the "expanding circle".
In these countries, although English is not used for government business, its widespread use puts them at the boundary between the "outer circle" and "expanding circle". English is unusual among world languages in how many of its users are not native speakers but speakers of English as a second or foreign language.
Many users of English in the expanding circle use it to communicate with other people from the expanding circle, so that interaction with native speakers of English plays no part in their decision to use English. Pie chart showing the percentage of native English speakers living in "inner circle" English-speaking countries.
Native speakers are now substantially outnumbered worldwide by second-language speakers of English not counted in this chart.
English is a pluricentric language , which means that no one national authority sets the standard for use of the language. International broadcasters are usually identifiable as coming from one country rather than another through their accents ,  but newsreader scripts are also composed largely in international standard written English.
The norms of standard written English are maintained purely by the consensus of educated English-speakers around the world, without any oversight by any government or international organisation. American listeners generally readily understand most British broadcasting, and British listeners readily understand most American broadcasting.
Most English speakers around the world can understand radio programmes, television programmes, and films from many parts of the English-speaking world. The settlement history of the English-speaking inner circle countries outside Britain helped level dialect distinctions and produce koineised forms of English in South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Now the majority of the United States population are monolingual English speakers,   and English has been given official or co-official status by 30 of the 50 state governments, as well as all five territorial governments of the US, though there has never been an official language at the federal level.
English has ceased to be an "English language" in the sense of belonging only to people who are ethnically English. Most people learn English for practical rather than ideological reasons.
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