Chinese Immigration and the Chinese in the United States
Southeastern China was in poverty and ruins caused by the Taiping rebellion. Therefore, many Chinese immigrated to the US from Canton after news of the gold discovery in California. Immigrants undertook a Pacific Ocean journey of three weeks by ship. Many . Chinese Immigration and the Chinese Exclusion Acts. In the s, Chinese workers migrated to the United States, first to work in the gold mines, but also to take agricultural jobs, and factory work, especially in the garment industry. Chinese immigrants were particularly instrumental in building railroads in the American west, and as Chinese laborers grew successful in the United States, a .
In many respects, the motivations for the Chinese to what class drug is magic mushrooms to the United States are amwrica to those of most immigrants.
Some came to "The Gold Mountain," and others came to the United States to seek better economic opportunity. Yet there were others that were compelled to traavel China either as contract laborers or refugees. The Chinese brought with them their language, culture, social institutions, and customs. Over time they made lasting contributions to their adopted country and tried to become an integral part of the United Qmerica population. Chinese immigration can be divided into three periods:, and to the present.
The first period began shortly after the California Gold Rush travfl ended abruptly with the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act of Immigrantz this period thousands of Chinese, mostly young male peasants, left their villages in the rural countries to become laborers in the American West.
They were recruited to extract metals and minerals, construct a vast railroad network, reclaim trvael, build irrigation systems, work as migrant agricultural laborers, develop the fishing industry, and operate highly-competitive manufacturing industries. At the wmerica of the first period, the Chinese population in the United States was aboutChinese take-outs, catering, and chain restaurants have been commonplace in many cities.
American households now routinely use Chinese ingredients such as soy sauce and ginger. They employ cooking techniques, such as stir frying and own Chinese utensils such as the wok and the cleaver. Very few Chinese Americans now wear traditional Chinese clothing.
On special occasions, some traditional costumes are worn. Sometimes, as seen in movies and television, Chinese styles find their way into American high fashion and Hollywood movies. In regards to the celebration of Chinese holidays, most Chinese Americans today observe the major holidays of the What are lifters in a car engine lunar calendar. Family members get together for special how did the chinese immigrants travel to america and celebrations.
Throughout this period of immigration Chinese Americans were confined to segregated ghettos, called Chinatowns, in major cities and isolated regions in rural areas ttavel the country. Economic development and racial exclusion defined the patterns of settlement for the Chinese Americans. Before the Chinese Exclusion Act, the patterns of settlement followed the patterns of economic development in the western states.
Since mining and railway construction dominated the western economy, Chinese immigrants settled mostly in California and states west of the Rocky Mountains. Although the Chinese immigrants in the late nineteenth century faced many immigrxnts, they had a profound effect on America.
Primarily, the Chinese supplied the labor for America's growing industry. Chinese factory workers were important in California especially during the Civil War.
They worked in wool mills, and cigar, shoe, and garment industries; twenty-five occupations in all. Chinese entrepreneurs started their own factories, competing with the white people. The Chinese provided a quarter of California's labor force.
Chinese labor was also sought elsewhere in America, on the east coast and in the south to substitute for the now freed slaves. Chinese labor was sought after mainly because they supplied cheap labor. The worldwide effort to abolish slavery was aided by the Chinese cheap labor. The Chinese were also the first to stake claims in California gold fields prompting many to relocate to travle west. With the gold immigrant, the Chinese were prompted to exploit other western state resources, providing products of use to the American society.
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The result of this pressure was the Chinese Exclusion Act, passed by Congress in This Act virtually ended Chinese immigration for nearly a century. Immigrants entered the United States through several ports. Those from Europe generally came through East Coast facilities, while those from Asia generally entered through West Coast centers. Even then, Chinese immigration was still limited to a mere people a year. In , all restrictions were lifted and the Chinese started to arrive in America in huge numbers. In America, though, things would turn out differently. Once Chinese immigrants arrived in California, they found that the gold mountain was an illusion. Mining was uncertain work, and the gold fields were littered with disappointed prospectors and hostile locals. Work could be scarce, and new arrivals sometimes found it difficult to earn enough.
In the s, Chinese workers migrated to the United States, first to work in the gold mines, but also to take agricultural jobs, and factory work, especially in the garment industry. Chinese immigrants were particularly instrumental in building railroads in the American west, and as Chinese laborers grew successful in the United States, a number of them became entrepreneurs in their own right.
As the numbers of Chinese laborers increased, so did the strength of anti-Chinese sentiment among other workers in the American economy. This finally resulted in legislation that aimed to limit future immigration of Chinese workers to the United States, and threatened to sour diplomatic relations between the United States and China. American objections to Chinese immigration took many forms, and generally stemmed from economic and cultural tensions, as well as ethnic discrimination.
Most Chinese laborers who came to the United States did so in order to send money back to China to support their families there. At the same time, they also had to repay loans to the Chinese merchants who paid their passage to America. These financial pressures left them little choice but to work for whatever wages they could. Non-Chinese laborers often required much higher wages to support their wives and children in the United States, and also generally had a stronger political standing to bargain for higher wages.
Therefore many of the non-Chinese workers in the United States came to resent the Chinese laborers, who might squeeze them out of their jobs. Furthermore, as with most immigrant communities, many Chinese settled in their own neighborhoods, and tales spread of Chinatowns as places where large numbers of Chinese men congregated to visit prostitutes, smoke opium, or gamble.
Some advocates of anti-Chinese legislation therefore argued that admitting Chinese into the United States lowered the cultural and moral standards of American society. Others used a more overtly racist argument for limiting immigration from East Asia, and expressed concern about the integrity of American racial composition. To address these rising social tensions, from the s through the s the California state government passed a series of measures aimed at Chinese residents, ranging from requiring special licenses for Chinese businesses or workers to preventing naturalization.
Because anti-Chinese discrimination and efforts to stop Chinese immigration violated the Burlingame-Seward Treaty with China, the federal government was able to negate much of this legislation. In , advocates of immigration restriction succeeded in introducing and passing legislation in Congress to limit the number of Chinese arriving to fifteen per ship or vessel. Republican President Rutherford B. Hayes vetoed the bill because it violated U.
Nevertheless, it was still an important victory for advocates of exclusion. Democrats, led by supporters in the West, advocated for all-out exclusion of Chinese immigrants. Although Republicans were largely sympathetic to western concerns, they were committed to a platform of free immigration.
In order to placate the western states without offending China, President Hayes sought a revision of the Burlingame-Seward Treaty in which China agreed to limit immigration to the United States. In , the Hayes Administration appointed U. Angell to negotiate a new treaty with China. The resulting Angell Treaty permitted the United States to restrict, but not completely prohibit, Chinese immigration. In , Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which, per the terms of the Angell Treaty, suspended the immigration of Chinese laborers skilled or unskilled for a period of 10 years.
The Act also required every Chinese person traveling in or out of the country to carry a certificate identifying his or her status as a laborer, scholar, diplomat, or merchant. The Act was the first in American history to place broad restrictions on immigration.
For American presidents and Congressmen addressing the question of Chinese exclusion, the challenge was to balance domestic attitudes and politics, which dictated an anti-Chinese policy, while maintaining good diplomatic relations with China, where exclusion would be seen as an affront and a violation of treaty promises.
The domestic factors ultimately trumped international concerns. In , Congress took exclusion even further and passed the Scott Act, which made reentry to the United States after a visit to China impossible, even for long-term legal residents. The Chinese Government considered this act a direct insult, but was unable to prevent its passage. In , Congress voted to renew exclusion for ten years in the Geary Act, and in , the prohibition was expanded to cover Hawaii and the Philippines, all over strong objections from the Chinese Government and people.
Congress later extended the Exclusion Act indefinitely. In China, merchants responded to the humiliation of the exclusion acts by organizing an anti-American boycott in Though the movement was not sanctioned by the Chinese government, it received unofficial support in the early months.
President Theodore Roosevelt recognized the boycott as a direct response to unfair American treatment of Chinese immigrants, but with American prestige at stake, he called for the Chinese government to suppress it. After five difficult months, Chinese merchants lost the impetus for the movement, and the boycott ended quietly. The Chinese Exclusion Acts were not repealed until , and then only in the interests of aiding the morale of a wartime ally during World War II.
Menu Menu. Milestones: — For more information, please see the full notice. Chinese Immigration and the Chinese Exclusion Acts In the s, Chinese workers migrated to the United States, first to work in the gold mines, but also to take agricultural jobs, and factory work, especially in the garment industry.
The Chinese Exclusion Act. President Rutherford B.
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