Chichen itza what is it

chichen itza what is it

Chichen Itza

Aug 20, Chichen Itza was a Mayan city on the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. Although its an important tourist attraction, Chichen Itza also remains an active archeological site. Chichen Itza, ruined ancient Maya city occupying an area of 4 square miles (10 square km) in south-central Yucatan state, Mexico. It is thought to have been a religious, military, political, and commercial centre that at its peak would have been home to 35, people.

This is what Chichen Itza means in Maya. Chichen Itza was one of the most important city-states in pre-Hispanic America and is one of the most visited archaeological sites izta Mexico today. Chichen Itza is located in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico near Chichen itza what is it, Yucatana nice little Colonial town that you must visit iy it is also really close to one of the most visited cities for tourism: Cancun. Chichen Itza is a well-known Archaeological Site and more after being selected one of the New 7 Wonders of the World in July the 7th, Chichen Itza welcomes over 2, visitors each year and you can reach the archaeological site by car, bus or with different tours.

Chichen Itza opens every day from Monday to Sunday from 8 am to 5 pm, the last entrance is what states are bank of america located in 4 pm, and you can get the tickets on site.

You can also checkout: Chichen Itza Tickets. Chichen Itza is beautiful and magnificent just how to reduce your auto insurance premium you must have already chichen itza what is it and it has plenty of Mayan Ruins to visit and get to know about its history. One of the best ways to get to Chichen Itza is by hiring a Tour. There are several types for the tour.

Select the one that most suit your conditions and expectations. Enjoy the perks of the regular Chichen Itza Tour, Plus some extra amenities like unlimited drinks onboard the bus. This is a great tour for you. It has the same perks as the classic Chichen Itza Tour but in addition chichsn visit a traditional Mayan town where you experience traditional Mayan food.

Visit Chichen Itza at your own pace. Enjoy the perks of traveling in Luxury. If you want to get in style to Chichen Itza, you os book this tour. Learn more The Yucatan Peninsula is home to beautiful Chichen Itza, dhichen also lots of other Mayan Ruins and beautiful destinations. Chixhen this Tour for USD. Mayan Ruins Chichen Itza is beautiful and magnificent just as you must have already heard and it chicheen plenty of Mayan Ruins to visit and get to know about its history. Chichen Itza Classic Tour.

Chichen Itza Tour Plus. Chichen Itza Deluxe Tour. Chichen Itza Ihza Cuisine Tour. Private Chichen Itza Tour. Luxury Chichen Itza Tour. Yucatan Peninsula.

Learn more. Valladolid Yucatan. Beautiful Colonial Boutique Town. Ek Balam. Rio Lagartos. Visit the magical pink lagoons.

Map of Chichen Itza

Chichen Itza can be crowded, so we recommend booking e-tickets ahead of time to secure your spot. If you book with Tripadvisor, you can cancel at least 24 hours before the start date of your tour for a full refund. See all Chichen Itza tickets and tours on Tripadvisor/5(K). Chichen Itza is a well-known Archaeological Site and more after being selected one of the New 7 Wonders of the World in July the 7th, Chichen Itza welcomes over 2,, visitors each year and you can reach the archaeological site by car, bus or with different tours. Apr 08, The term Chichen Itza means the mouth at the well of Itza. It is believed Itza means water magicians, deriving from the Mayan Itz for magic and a for water. What is the most attractive thing that make tourists want to visit Chichen Itza?

Chichen Itza [nb 1] was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. AD through the Terminal Classic c. AD and into the early portion of the Postclassic period c. AD The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the Northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion.

Chichen Itza was one of the largest Maya cities and it was likely to have been one of the mythical great cities, or Tollans , referred to in later Mesoamerican literature. Chichen Itza is one of the most visited archaeological sites in Mexico with over 2. One possible translation for Itza is "enchanter or enchantment of the water," [5] from its itz , "sorcerer", and ha , "water". While most sources agree the first word means seven, there is considerable debate as to the correct translation of the rest.

There are four visible, natural sink holes, called cenotes , that could have provided plentiful water year round at Chichen, making it attractive for settlement. According to post-Conquest sources Maya and Spanish , pre-Columbian Maya sacrificed objects and human beings into the cenote as a form of worship to the Maya rain god Chaac. Edward Herbert Thompson dredged the Cenote Sagrado from to , and recovered artifacts of gold, jade , pottery and incense , as well as human remains.

Several archaeologists in the late s suggested that unlike previous Maya polities of the Early Classic, Chichen Itza may not have been governed by an individual ruler or a single dynastic lineage.

Instead, the city's political organization could have been structured by a " multepal " system, which is characterized as rulership through council composed of members of elite ruling lineages. This theory was popular in the s, but in recent years, the research that supported the concept of the "multepal" system has been called into question, if not discredited. The current belief trend in Maya scholarship is toward the more traditional model of the Maya kingdoms of the Classic Period southern lowlands in Mexico.

Chichen Itza was a major economic power in the northern Maya lowlands during its apogee. It established Isla Cerritos as a trading port. The layout of Chichen Itza site core developed during its earlier phase of occupation, between and AD. The Late Classic city was centered upon the area to the southwest of the Xtoloc cenote, with the main architecture represented by the substructures now underlying the Las Monjas and Observatorio and the basal platform upon which they were built.

It was, however, toward the end of the Late Classic and into the early part of the Terminal Classic that the site became a major regional capital, centralizing and dominating political, sociocultural, economic, and ideological life in the northern Maya lowlands. The ascension of Chichen Itza roughly correlates with the decline and fragmentation of the major centers of the southern Maya lowlands. As Chichen Itza rose to prominence, the cities of Yaxuna to the south and Coba to the east were suffering decline.

These two cities had been mutual allies, with Yaxuna dependent upon Coba. At some point in the 10th century Coba lost a significant portion of its territory, isolating Yaxuna, and Chichen Itza may have directly contributed to the collapse of both cities. According to some colonial Mayan sources e. Hunac Ceel supposedly prophesied his own rise to power. According to custom at the time, individuals thrown into the Cenote Sagrado were believed to have the power of prophecy if they survived.

During one such ceremony, the chronicles state, there were no survivors, so Hunac Ceel leaped into the Cenote Sagrado, and when removed, prophesied his own ascension. Archaeological data now indicates that Chichen Itza declined as a regional center by , before the rise of Mayapan.

Ongoing research at the site of Mayapan may help resolve this chronological conundrum. When the Spanish arrived, they found a thriving local population, although it is not clear from Spanish sources if these Maya were living in Chichen Itza proper, or a nearby settlement.

The relatively high population density in the region was a factor in the conquistadors' decision to locate a capital there. At first he encountered no resistance, and set about dividing the lands around the city and awarding them to his soldiers.

The Maya became more hostile over time, and eventually they laid siege to the Spanish, cutting off their supply line to the coast, and forcing them to barricade themselves among the ruins of the ancient city. Months passed, but no reinforcements arrived. Montejo the Younger attempted an all out assault against the Maya and lost of his remaining troops.

The book prompted other explorations of the city. Augustus Le Plongeon called it "Chaacmol" later renamed " Chac Mool ", which has been the term to describe all types of this statuary found in Mesoamerica.

Maudslay published the first long-form description of Chichen Itza in his book, Biologia Centrali-Americana. For 30 years, Thompson explored the ancient city. His discoveries included the earliest dated carving upon a lintel in the Temple of the Initial Series and the excavation of several graves in the Osario High Priest's Temple.

Thompson is most famous for dredging the Cenote Sagrado Sacred Cenote from to , where he recovered artifacts of gold, copper and carved jade, as well as the first-ever examples of what were believed to be pre-Columbian Maya cloth and wooden weapons. Thompson shipped the bulk of the artifacts to the Peabody Museum at Harvard University.

In , the Carnegie Institution accepted the proposal of archaeologist Sylvanus G. Morley and committed to conduct long-term archaeological research at Chichen Itza. In , the Mexican government awarded the Carnegie Institution a year permit later extended another 10 years to allow U.

In , the Mexican government charged Edward Thompson with theft, claiming he stole the artifacts from the Cenote Sagrado and smuggled them out of the country. He wrote about his research and investigations of the Maya culture in a book People of the Serpent published in He died in New Jersey in The Thompsons sold the hacienda to tourism pioneer Fernando Barbachano Peon. There have been two later expeditions to recover artifacts from the Cenote Sagrado, in and The first was sponsored by the National Geographic, and the second by private interests.

In , to investigate construction that predated El Castillo, Yucatec archaeologists began excavations adjacent to El Castillo under the direction of Rafael Rach Cobos. Chichen Itza was one of the largest Maya cities, with the relatively densely clustered architecture of the site core covering an area of at least 5 square kilometres 1.

The site contains many fine stone buildings in various states of preservation, and many have been restored. The buildings were connected by a dense network of paved causeways, called sacbeob. Pigments were chosen according to what was most easily available in the area. The site must be imagined as a colorful one, not like it is today.

Just like gothic cathedrals in Europe, colors provided a greater sense of completeness and contributed greatly to the symbolic impact of the buildings. The Puuc-style architecture is concentrated in the Old Chichen area, and also the earlier structures in the Nunnery Group including the Las Monjas, Annex and La Iglesia buildings ; it is also represented in the Akab Dzib structure. Those structures with sculpted hieroglyphic script are concentrated in certain areas of the site, with the most important being the Las Monjas group.

The temple was identified by the first Spaniards to see it, as El Castillo "the castle" , and it regularly is referred to as such. The sides of the pyramid are approximately After several false starts, they discovered a staircase under the north side of the pyramid. By digging from the top, they found another temple buried below the current one. Inside the temple chamber was a Chac Mool statue and a throne in the shape of Jaguar, painted red and with spots made of inlaid jade.

In , INAH closed the throne room to the public. Archaeologists have identified thirteen ballcourts for playing the Mesoamerican ballgame in Chichen Itza, [53] but the Great Ball Court about metres ft to the north-west of the Castillo is by far the most impressive. It is the largest and best preserved ball court in ancient Mesoamerica. The parallel platforms flanking the main playing area are each 95 metres ft long. At the base of the high interior walls are slanted benches with sculpted panels of teams of ball players.

Built into the east wall are the Temples of the Jaguar. The Upper Temple of the Jaguar overlooks the ball court and has an entrance guarded by two, large columns carved in the familiar feathered serpent motif. Inside there is a large mural, much destroyed, which depicts a battle scene. In the entrance to the Lower Temple of the Jaguar , which opens behind the ball court, is another Jaguar throne, similar to the one in the inner temple of El Castillo, except that it is well worn and missing paint or other decoration.

The outer columns and the walls inside the temple are covered with elaborate bas-relief carvings. Unlike the tzompantli of the highlands, however, the skulls were impaled vertically rather than horizontally as at Tenochtitlan. This Platform of Venus is dedicated to the planet Venus. This platform is located north of El Castillo, between it and the Cenote Sagrado.

The Temple of the Tables is the northernmost of a series of buildings to the east of El Castillo. Its name comes from a series of altars at the top of the structure that are supported by small carved figures of men with upraised arms, called "atlantes. The Steam Bath is a unique building with three parts: a waiting gallery, a water bath, and a steam chamber that operated by means of heated stones. This "white road" is metres ft long with an average width of 9 metres 30 ft. It begins at a low wall a few metres from the Platform of Venus.

According to archaeologists there once was an extensive building with columns at the beginning of the road. The region is pockmarked with natural sinkholes , called cenotes, which expose the water table to the surface.

One of the most impressive of these is the Cenote Sagrado, which is 60 metres ft in diameter [58] and surrounded by sheer cliffs that drop to the water table some 27 metres 89 ft below.

The Cenote Sagrado was a place of pilgrimage for ancient Maya people who, according to ethnohistoric sources, would conduct sacrifices during times of drought. The Temple of the Warriors complex consists of a large stepped pyramid fronted and flanked by rows of carved columns depicting warriors.

This complex is analogous to Temple B at the Toltec capital of Tula, and indicates some form of cultural contact between the two regions. The one at Chichen Itza, however, was constructed on a larger scale. At the top of the stairway on the pyramid's summit and leading toward the entrance of the pyramid's temple is a Chac Mool.

This temple encases or entombs a former structure called The Temple of the Chac Mool. The archeological expedition and restoration of this building was done by the Carnegie Institution of Washington from to A key member of this restoration was Earl H. Morris , who published the work from this expedition in two volumes entitled Temple of the Warriors. Watercolors were made of murals in the Temple of the Warriors that were deteriorating rapidly following exposure to the elements after enduring for centuries in the protected enclosures being discovered.

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